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Special Report on

The Norm of Reciprocity

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The norm of reciprocity states that we treat or respond to others in a similar manner as to how we are treated. The Golden Rule and an "Eye for an Eye" are examples of the norm of reciprocity stated in cultural rules. So, what does reciprocity have to d There is only one universal social norm, the norm of reciprocity. The norm of reciprocity states that we treat or respond to others in a similar manner as to how we are treated. The Golden Rule and an “Eye for an Eye” are examples of the norm of reciprocity stated in cultural rules. We are more likely to be persuaded when given a gift because we feel that ...
of reciprocity is the expectation that people will respond to each other in similar ways—responding to gifts and kindnesses from others with similar benevolence of their own, and responding to harmful, hurtful acts from others with either indifference or some form of retaliation. Such norms can be crude and mechanical, such as a literal reading of the eye-for-an-eye rule lex talionis , or they can be complex and sophisticated, such as a subtle understanding of how anonymous donations to an international organization can be a form of reciprocity for the receipt of very personal benefits, such as the love of a parent. The norm of ...
The Norm of Reciprocity - PsychWiki - A Collaborative Psychology Wiki
We should reciprocate in kind the good things done for us, whether it is returning benefits for benefits or concessions for concessions. The norm of reciprocity is often used as a compliance strategy in social influence. [2] Cicero stated, “There is no duty more indispensable than that of a returning a kindness. All men distrust one forgetful of a benefit.” In his book Man in Reciprocity, Becker (1956) uses this quote to show that men have been insisting on the importance of reciprocity for a long time.Becker, Howard. Man in Reciprocity. New York: Prager, 1956, p.1. Cialdini (2001), in concordance, states that ... market research, surveys and trends
Give Up on “Giving Back” | The Freeman | Ideas On Liberty
It’s not his philanthropy that I object to — what he’s doing in this area is brilliant — but the reasons he gives for it, as though his wealth is in some way undeserved. Most readers of The Freeman understand that in a free society people trade because they expect to benefit from it. So if Bill Gates made billions of dollars by offering goods that people find more valuable than what they pay, the principle of reciprocity is satisfied when those customers hand over their cash and the company hands over the product. If the terms of the trade have all been fulfilled, there is nothing more that Gates owes the customer, ... market research, surveys and trends


A Survey of Economic Theories and Field Evidence on Pro-Social ...
In 1998, these private households donated more than $134 billion (Andreoni 2002) . ... models; theories based on the norm of reciprocity; and approaches that .... of donations was 75 percent higher among those receiving a large gift ... industry trends, business articles and survey research
Does a Micro-Macro Link Exist Between Managerial Value of ...
ing to the Chinese Economic and Trade Committee, there were more than 10 million . SMEs officially registered. These comprised some 98 percent of all ... industry trends, business articles and survey research
Veiled Threats?
In Spain earlier this month, the Catalonian assembly narrowly rejected a proposed ban on the Muslim burqa in all public places — reversing a vote the week before in the country’s upper house of parliament supporting a ban. Similar proposals may soon become national law in France and Belgium.  Even the headscarf often causes trouble.  In France, girls may not wear it in school.  In Germany (as in parts of Belgium and the Netherlands) some regions forbid public school teachers to wear it on the job, although nuns and priests are permitted to teach in full habit.  What does political philosophy have to say about these ... market trends, news research and surveys resources
'Lanka should be part of region's growth story'
Indian MP and former minister of external affairs Yashwant Sinha yesterday called on Sri Lanka to become a part of what he called the subcontinent’s exciting growth story and stressed that Sri Lanka should go ahead with the second phase of the Comprehensive Economic Partnership Agreement (CEPA). Delivering the thirteenth Dudley Senanayake memorial lecture organised by the Dudley Senanayake Foundation and Friedrich Naumann Stiftung fur die Freiheit last evening, Mr. Sinha said South Asia was at the cusp of transformation, and that globalization was an integral component of the region’s development plans. He said India ... market trends, news research and surveys resources


Gouldner A W. The norm of reciprocity: a preliminary statement ...
students, 'The norm of reciprocity' was an early articulation of growing ... “In effect 'The norm of reciprocity' and its companion work presage the neo- ... technology research, surveys study and trend statistics
Legitimating Beliefs: Sources and Indicators - Working Paper No ...
Norms of reciprocity are by their nature shared and enforced by communities or ... having no norms of reciprocity, some having a strong norm, and others ... technology research, surveys study and trend statistics
Norm of Reciprocity - Gouldner
The manner in which the concept of reciprocity is implicated infunctional theory is explored, enabling a reanalysis of the conceptsof "survival" and "exploitation." The need to distinguish between theconcepts of complementarity and reciprocity is stressed. Distinctionsare also drawn between (1) reciprocity as a pattern of mutuallycontingent exchange of gratifications, (2) the existential or folkbelief in reciprocity, and (3) the generalized moral norm ofreciprocity. Reciprocity as a moral norm is analyzed; it ishypothesized that it is one of the universal "principal components"of moral codes. As ...
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Social capital is important to the efficient functioning of modern economies, and is the sine qua non of stable liberal democracy. It constitutes the cultural component of modern societies, which in other respects have been organized since the Enlightenment on the basis of formal institutions, the rule of law, and rationality. Building social capital has typically been seen as a task for "second generation" economic reform; but unlike economic policies or even economic institutions, social capital cannot be so easily created or shaped by public policy. This paper will define social capital, explore its economic and political ...
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